Corr: Can you please explain what your ETF is for those who have no financial experience?
Tolle: An ETF, or exchange traded fund, is a tradable basket of securities, similar to a mutual fund. But unlike mutual funds, ETFs trade on exchanges, and are known for their transparency, tax efficiency, and lower cost.
Most ETFs track an index. And most indexes are market capitalization weighted – where the biggest companies, and countries, by their market capitalization, get the biggest allocations in the index.
There are three main categories of country classifications for global stocks – developed markets (DM), emerging markets (EM) and frontier markets (FM). Continue reading →
Journal of Political Risk, Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2021
By Stephanie Wild
South Africans and supporters gather outside the South African High Commission in London to support students and protest against police violence. Rachel Megawhat.
The problem of youth unemployment has grown in South Africa for years, but now with the global economy having taken an all-time dip, it has emerged even further at the forefront of South Africans’ minds. Policy geared to expand small business creation in the education sector would be a two-for-one win that keeps on giving.
The crux of the problem
According to Stats SA (2021), in the first quarter of 2021, the official unemployment rate was reported as an astonishingly-high 32.6%. While the number of employed and unemployed South Africans remained rather unchanged from the last quarter of 2020, the number of discouraged work-seekers increased by nearly 7% (Stats SA, 2021). This means that the problem has not necessarily worsened between 2020 and this year. However, it persists and reveals a failure to both ameliorate the problem, and a failure to boost morale that results from the problem. Continue reading →
Journal of Political Risk, Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2021
By Helen Hintjens, Ph.D.
International Institute of Social Studies in The Hague
Destruction of Falun Gong books during the 1999 China crackdown. Wikimedia/ClearWisdom
“Genocide is a crime for which there has to be proof of a particular hostile state of mind in an individual or in a government body towards a group that qualifies under the Genocide Convention’s or the ICC Statute’s limited set of groups against whom genocide can be committed”.
Since at least 2000, at the behest of Jiang Zemin, President of the PRC from 1993 to 2003, Falun Gong have been labelled a ‘heretical (or deviated) religion’, and its members systematically persecuted through a covert ‘6-10 Office’ group of Chinese government security officers.
In April 2019, the China Organ Harvesting Research Centre issued a report, investigating allegations dating to 2006 that Falun Gong, imprisoned in China on grounds of following an unauthorized religion, were systematically having their organs harvested for use in Chinese medical institutions. The report concluded that: “the Chinese regime has attempted to systematically annihilate Falun Gong” through such means. Already in 2004, a court case against the Chinese leadership was heard in a Dutch court. The charges were genocide of followers of Falun Gong. The grisly subject-matter of organ harvesting is part and parcel of wider genocide claims, claims that are hardly news any more. The question in this opinion article is not whether Falun Gong members’ organs are being harvested in PRC; of that there is little doubt. The question is rather, is this an example of a state-committed crime of genocide. Continue reading →
Journal of Political Risk, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2021
By Randall Cook, Alan Levesque, and Waqas Shahid
Figure 1. Source: CFIUS Annual Reports to Congress; Ankura Analysis
This paper describes the role, value proposition, and optimal approach of the independent Third Party Monitor (“TPM”) in National Security Agreements (“NSAs”) between transaction parties and the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”). When effectively scoped and executed, TPMs provide tailored, adaptive mitigation oversight capabilities that are a critical enabler for the dual imperatives of protecting U.S. national security interests and ensuring that U.S. enterprise and innovation continue to have access to the fuel of global capital. The TPMs persistent presence, programmatic monitoring, and deployment of industry-specific technical expertise, among other capabilities, uniquely facilitate verified, real-time, and efficient operationalization of NSA requirements; CFIUS assurance that foreign investment risks to U.S. national security are effectively and proactively mitigated; and transaction parties’ ability to operate a business that is both successful and NSA-compliant. An effective TPM approach is necessarily collaborative and adaptive, enabling a trust-based environment where all NSA stakeholder goals can be achieved through iterative, practical interaction and improvement. Continue reading →
Journal of Political Risk, Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2021
By Roger Garside
A photo montage of Roger Garside, and his new book, China Coup: The Great Leap to Freedom (Berkeley: University of California Press, May 2021). This contribution is an excerpt from the book, reprinted with permission of the publisher.
Robert Conquest, the great Anglo-American historian of the Soviet Union, defined a totalitarian state as one that recognizes no limits to its authority in any sphere of public or private life and that extends that authority to whatever length feasible. The regime imposed by the Communist Party of China fits that description. In the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong attempted to extend the authority of the Party to the furthest limits conceivable, and in doing so created the greatest man-made disaster in the history of the world. His successors recognized that it was not feasible to extend the Party’s authority as far as Mao had attempted. Otherwise it would lose its grip on power. But as the constitution of the People’s Republic makes clear in principle, it reserves the right to impose its authority in any sphere of public or private life, and the Party frequently reminds society of this in practice.
It is the absence of any restrictions on the Party that constitutes the principal difference between a totalitarian and an authoritarian regime. Only if we recognize this reality can we understand China today and stand a chance of accurately predicting its future. Continue reading →